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botanical name:
Polystichum aculeatum
Polystichum aculeatum © Deeproot Plant Base
common name:  Hard Shield Fern
synonyms:  Polystichum lobatum
family:  Polypodiaceae
characteristics: fern, evergreen
height: 0.90m
width: 0.90m
growth rate:
growth habit: ferny
leaf colour: green
flower colour:
main season: All Year
aspect: part shade, shade
conditions: moist soil
preferred soil pH: any
minimum temp: -25°C
USDA zone: 5 to 8
description:
Stiff, leathery, glossy green fronds with each pinnae ending in a stiff bristle. Unusually, the fronds uncoil backwards in the spring. Evergreen.
Its appearance reflects the common name of 'Hard Shield Fern', in contrast to Polystichum setiferum, the 'Soft Shield Fern' with its softer look and feel.

cultivation:
Prefers a well-drained, stony soil in shade.

other notes:
European native of woods, hedgerows and hilly, rocky areas.

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